Spence, C. Hospital food. Flavour 6, 3 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13411-017-0055-y
The author also gives some ideas as to how some simple changes could make a difference (one example is that patients may eat more of a protein shake if it is made into ice cream!)
He also claims that sous vide also began in Swiss hospitals as as way to sterilize and preserve food.
Simple fixes like changing the plate colour can make a difference too:
"The gastrophysics research now shows that enhancing the visual contrast on the plate can lead to a substantial increase in food and liquid intake in those who are suffering from advanced Alzheimer’s disease. In one study conducted at a long-term care facility over in the States, for instance, switching to high contrast blue or red plates and glasses led to a 25% increase in food consumption and liquid intake going up by as much as 84%.The results of another hospital study were equally dramatic: Average consumption amongst the older and more vulnerable patients, including those suffering from dementia, went up by 30% from 114 to 152 g, just by changing the plate colour. In this case, the hospital replaced their standard issue white plates with blue crockery instead. Elsewhere, older people have been shown to eat more white fish when it is served from a blue plate. Better contrast between the food in the foreground and the background colour can probably best help explain such remarkable results."The author gives some very good ideas for improving food service in hospitals and retirement homes - some of which are actually not very expensive to implement!